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Poet Franz Kafka, who wrote the short story “The Hunger Artist”, suffered from anorexia. The evidence for the hypothesis that the poet Franz Kafka had suffered from an atypical anorexia nervosa is presented. Kafka was slim and underweight throughout his life and showed an ascetic attitude and abjuration of physical enjoyment and pleasure (fasting, vegetarianism, sexual abstinence, emphasis on physical fitness). The analysis is mainly based on Kafka’s own descriptions in his letters, diaries, and literary work. Kafka was achievement oriented, reported many sadomasochistic fantasies, and had an anancastic (obsessive-compulsive) depressive personality.